Committee Membership Information

Study Title:

Improving the Assessment of Proliferation Risk of Nuclear Fuel Cycles

Study Director:

Dr. Robert C. Dynes - (Chair)
University of California, San Diego

Robert C. Dynes is President Emeritus of the University of California (UC) and a professor of physics at UC San Diego. A first-generation college graduate and a distinguished physicist, Dynes served as the sixth chancellor of the UC???s San Diego campus from 1996 to 2003. He came to UC San Diego in 1990 after a 22-year career at AT&T Bell Laboratories, where he served as department head of semiconductor and material physics research and director of chemical physics research. His numerous scientific honors include the 1990 Fritz London Award in Low Temperature Physics and his election to the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in 1989 and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1994. Since leaving the UC presidency in June 2008, Dynes has joined the boards of Argonne National Laboratory, the review panel for the Canadian Foundation for Innovation, the Helmholtz Foundation in Germany and the San Diego Foundation. Active in the national scientific arena, he is a fellow of the American Physical Society, the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He has served on the Executive Committee of the U.S. Council on Competitiveness, the California Commission for Jobs and Economic Growth and the Governor???s Nurse Education Initiative Task Force. He is a Fellow of the California Council on Science and Technology and a member of the Business-Higher Education Forum. He served as chair for the Committee on Evaluating Testing, Costs, and Benefits of Advanced Spectroscopic Portals and is currently serving on the NRSB. A native of London, Ontario, Canada, and a naturalized U.S. citizen, Dr. Dynes holds a B.S. in mathematics and physics and an honorary doctor of laws degree from the University of Western Ontario, and an M.S. and Ph.D. in physics and an honorary doctor of science from McMaster University. He also holds an honorary doctorate from L???Universit?? de Montr??al.

Ms. Carol E. Kessler
Brookhaven National Laboratory

Carol E. Kessler is currently chair of the Nonproliferation and National Security Department at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. She was formerly the director of the Center for Global Security at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and built the center into a renowned program of study in international security and nonproliferation. Prior to that, she served as the deputy director general for the Nuclear Energy Agency at the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, in Paris, France. From 1984 to 1988, Kessler was an export control and international safeguards analyst for the Office of International Programs at U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In 1988, she began her career at the State Department, serving as a foreign affairs officer for the Office of Nuclear Technology and Safeguards. She became the senior coordinator for nuclear safety in the Bureau of Nonproliferation Affairs, a position she held from 1995 to 2000. She recently served on the NRC???s Committee on Homeland Security and Export Controls. She received her B.S. in bio-geology from Brown University. She holds one M.S. in technology and policy from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and another M.S. in national security policy from the National War College in Washington, DC.

Dr. Bart Ebbinghaus
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Bart Ebbinghaus is a project manager at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) where he studies the chemical and material properties of actinides, purification by pyrochemistry, recovery from wastes, and disposition in ceramics. For a number of years he also directed the plutonium analytical and materials characterization work at the LLNL plutonium facility. He was responsible for much of the technical work supporting the plutonium pit lifetime assessment. From 2006 to 2009, he was the technical advisor to the Nuclear Counterterrorism Program, which focuses on understanding the potential impact of improvised nuclear devices. He was involved in the technical review of the Department of Energy???s Graded Safeguards Table from which the figure of merit of nuclear material attractiveness originated. He received his Ph.D. in high temperature chemistry from UC Berkeley in 1991.

Mr. Allen G. Croff
Oak Ridge National Laboratory [Retired]

Allen G. Crofff worked at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for 29 years, retiring in 2003 and is now an independent consultant. At ORNL he held positions in line and program management working on projects in waste management research and development, analysis of nuclear fuel cycles and nuclear materials management, and strategic planning. One of his significant achievements was creating the ORIGEN2 computer code used worldwide to calculate radionuclide buildup and decay in nuclear material and waste characterization, risk analysis and nuclear fuel cycle analysis. He previously served as chair for a committee of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements on risk-based waste classification. He is a consultant to the Blue Ribbon Commission on America???s Nuclear Future and the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board. Mr. Croff was vice-chairman of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste and a member of the Department of Energy???s Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee. Mr. Croff has worked on numerous NRC committees including the Committee on Management of Certain Radioactive Waste Streams Stored in Tanks at Three Department of Energy Sites. He received his B.S. in chemical engineering from Michigan State University, an M.S. in nuclear engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and an M.B.A. from the University of Tennessee.

Dr. Scott D. Sagan
Stanford University

Scott D. Sagan is the Caroline S.G. Munro Professor of Political Science at Stanford University and a Senior Fellow at the Center for International Security and Cooperation and the Freeman Spogli Institute. He also serves as the co-chair of the American Academy of Arts and Science's Global Nuclear Future Initiative. Before joining the Stanford faculty, Sagan was a lecturer in the Department of Government at Harvard University and served as a special assistant to the director of the Organization of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in the Pentagon. He has served as a consultant to the Office of the Secretary of Defense and at the Sandia National Laboratories and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Sagan has also won four teaching awards: the Monterey Institute for International Studies??? Nonproliferation Education Award in 2009, the International Studies Association???s 2008 Innovative Teaching Award, Stanford University???s 1998-99 Dean???s Award for Distinguished Teaching, and Stanford's 1996 Hoagland Prize for Undergraduate Teaching. He has written several books on nuclear nonproliferation and safety including The Limits of Safety. He received his B.A. in government from Oberlin College and his PhD in political science from Harvard University.

Dr. Arian L. Pregenzer
Sandia National Laboratories

Arian Pregenzer is a senior scientist at the Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) at Sandia National Laboratories. Under her leadership, the CMC was established in 1994 to enable international technical cooperation on nuclear security problems. She worked closely with officials in the U.S. and Jordan to establish a Cooperative Monitoring Center in Amman???the CMC@Amman. She has written on crisis prevention in Northeast Asia and nuclear material security in India and Pakistan. Dr. Pregenzer has also developed a cooperative project with the Arab Science and Technology Foundation to revitalize the Iraqi science and technology community. She is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. From August 1990 to August 1992, Dr. Pregenzer served as a technical advisor to the Department of Energy's Office of Arms Control. Prior to her career in international security, she worked at Sandia to develop lithium ion sources for particle-beam-driven inertial confinement fusion. Dr. Pregenzer received her B.S. in physics, mathematics, and philosophy from the University of New Mexico. In 1983 she earned a Ph.D. in theoretical physics from the University of California at San Diego.

Dr. Chris G. Whipple

Chris G. Whipple is a principal in the Emeryville, California???s office of ENVIRON International Corporation, an environmental consulting firm. He has consulted widely for private clients and government agencies. His professional expertise is risk assessment, primarily related to hazardous and radioactive materials. He is a long-time member of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Dr. Whipple is a member of the NAE, and currently serves as co-chair of the Academies??? Report Review Committee. He previously served as chair of the NRC???s Board on Radioactive Waste Management and as a member of the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology. He has served on and chaired numerous NRC committees, most recently as chair of the Committee on Risk-Based Approaches for Securing the DOE Weapons Complex. Dr. Whipple received his B.S. in engineering science from Purdue University and his M.S. and Ph.D. in engineering science from the California Institute of Technology.

Ms. Nancy Jo Nicholas
Los Alamos National Laboratory

Nancy Jo Nicholas joined Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in 1990 where she is currently the director of Nuclear Nonproliferation Program Office. From June 2006 to June 2010 she was the nuclear nonproliferation division leader. Prior to that she headed the Nonproliferation and Security Technology Program Office where she grew the nuclear safeguards programs in Washington D.C., and Vienna, Austria. She gained significant operational experience by managing an operational Category I nuclear facility for the LANL???s Advanced Nuclear Technology Group. She also serves as vice chair and founding member of the Vienna-based World Institute for Nuclear Security. She recently served a two-year term as president of the Institute for Nuclear Materials Management. Her technical field of expertise is nondestructive assay measurements. Ms. Nicholas earned a B.S. in mathematics and physics from Albright College and an M.S. in nuclear physics from George Washington University.

Dr. Amy Sands
Monterey Institute for International Studies

Amy Sands is the provost of the Monterey Institute of International Studies. Prior to becoming provost, Dr. Sands served for two and a half years as the dean of the Graduate School of International Policy Studies. Previous to this appointment, she was the deputy director of the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies for seven years. From August 1994 to June 1996, she was assistant director of the Intelligence, Verification, and Information Management Bureau at the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA). Upon leaving the government, Dr. Sands received ACDA's Distinguished Honor Award and the On-Site Inspection Agency's Exceptional Civilian Service Medal. Before joining ACDA, she led the Proliferation Assessments Section of Z Division (Intelligence) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. She is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and the International Institute of Strategic Studies. She recently served on the NRC Committee on Determining Basic Research Needs to Interrupt the Improvised Explosive Device Delivery Chain. She received her B.A. in political science from the University of Wisconsin, a Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy (M.A.L.D.) and a Ph.D. from Tufts University Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.

Mr. Milton Levenson
Independent Consultant

Milton Levenson is an independent consultant. He is a chemical engineer with 65 years of experience in nuclear energy and related fields. His technical experience includes work related to nuclear safety, fuel cycle, water reactors, advanced reactors, and remote control. His professional experience includes research and operations positions at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Argonne National Laboratory, the Electric Power Research Institute, and Bechtel. He was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 1976. Mr. Levenson is a fellow and past president of the American Nuclear Society, a fellow of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, and recipient of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers' Robert E. Wilson Award in Nuclear Chemical Engineering. He is the author of more than 150 publications and presentations and holds three U.S. patents. He has served on several relevant NRC committees including the Committee on the Internationalization of the Civilian Nuclear Fuel Cycle. He received his B.Ch.E from the University of Minnesota.

Dr. William Charlton
Texas A&M University

William Charlton serves as the director of the Nuclear Security Science and Policy Institute (NSSPI) at Texas A&M University (TAMU) and as an associate professor in the Nuclear Engineering Department. NSSPI is a multi-disciplinary organization that supports research and education programs in nuclear nonproliferation, nuclear security, and nuclear material safeguards. Prior to his appointment at TAMU, he was an assistant professor at the University of Texas at Austin and prior to that served on the technical staff in the Nonproliferation and International Security Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory. He teaches courses on the technical aspects of nuclear nonproliferation, safeguards, and nuclear security as well as fundamentals of nuclear engineering. Dr. Charlton is recognized as one of the technical leaders in nuclear nonproliferation and has over 150 technical publications in refereed journals and conference proceedings. He received his B.S., M.S. and Ph.D. in nuclear engineering from TAMU.

Dr. B. John Garrick
Independent Consultant

B. John Garrick is the retired CEO of PLG, Inc., an international applied science and engineering consulting firm. He is currently an independent consultant serving a presidential appointment as Chairman of the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board. He served for 10 years (1994-2004), four years as chair, on the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission???s Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste. He has an active consulting practice in the development and application of the risk sciences to systems in the nuclear, space, chemical, environmental, and marine fields. His research interests include the quantification and importance ranking of catastrophic risks to society and the environment to support societal decision making. He has served on or chaired numerous NRC committees, including the Committee on Evaluation of Quantification of Margins and Uncertainty (QMU) Methodology Applied to the Certification of the Nation's Nuclear Weapons Stockpile; the Committee on Engineering Aviation Security Environments--False Positives from Explosive Detection Systems; the Committee on Combating Terrorism; and the Committee on End Points for Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste in Russia and the United States. He is a past president of the Society for Risk Analysis and received that Society???s most prestigious award, the Distinguished Achievement Award; is a Fellow of three professional societies; and was elected to the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) in 1993. He received his M.S. in nuclear engineering from UCLA and his Ph.D. in engineering and applied science from the University of California, Los Angeles.